Articles

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1. The Hibernaculum Habits of the White Admiral Butterfly Limenitis camilla (Linnaeus)

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: The Hibernaculum Habits of the White Admiral Butterfly Limenitis camilla (Linnaeus).
Date: 03 November 2016
Keywords: White Admiral, Limenitis camilla
Abstract: As part of a broader study into the life cycle of the White Admiral butterfly, the author has examined the habits of the overwintering larva. In this article he presents four different types of hibernacula that he has encountered so that it may help those looking to monitor them over the winter months.

2. A Study of the Life Cycle of the Chequered Skipper Butterfly Carterocephalus palaemon (Pallas)

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: A Study of the Life Cycle of the Chequered Skipper Butterfly Carterocephalus palaemon (Pallas).
Date: 24 October 2016
Keywords: Chequered Skipper, Carterocephalus palaemon
Abstract: Of all of the butterflies found in the British Isles, the complete life cycle of the Chequered Skipper is one of the most rarely observed, for several reasons. The first is that the distribution of the butterfly is restricted to north west Scotland where the level of recording is relatively low. The second is that, while many enthusiasts have made pilgrimages to see the adult butterfly, very few have put the same effort into locating the immature stages. Finally, the ecology of the butterfly requires the observer to put in a significant amount of time before they are rewarded with views of all stages. In this article, the author summarises his observations over a three year period, from 2014 to 2016.

3. Of Lincolnshire High Skies, Hay Meadows and Mazarine Blues Cyaniris semiargus

Author: Martin White.
Title: Of Lincolnshire High Skies, Hay Meadows and Mazarine Blues Cyaniris semiargus.
Date: 22 January 2016
Keywords: Mazarine Blue, Cyaniris semiargus
Abstract: This article explores the most likely ecological reasons for the extinction of the Mazarine Blue in Great Britain using, as its principal model, the butterfly's last known breeding colony in England. It is strongly hoped that the information will be useful in either justifying more research into the Mazarine Blue's precise needs or possibly show the way forward for the successful re-establishment of this species. The benefit provided to the Mazarine Blue will inevitably halt the decline and further loss of both British and Continental meadowland invertebrates, which are still being badly affected by the same processes which are, here, thought to have been the primary cause of the Mazarine Blue's extinction. This research solidly complements the work of Cizek et al. (2012), arriving at exactly the same conclusion from an entirely different angle.

4. Egg-laying Preferences of the Small Copper (Lycaena phlaeas)

Author: William Langdon.
Title: Egg-laying Preferences of the Small Copper (Lycaena phlaeas).
Date: 09 August 2015
Keywords: Small Copper, Lycaena phlaeas
Abstract: This article summarises a study into the egg-laying habits of the Small Copper (Lycaena phlaeas) on Common Sorrel (Rumex acetosa) and Sheep's Sorrel (Rumex acetosella) in my garden in west Somerset, undertaken as part of the Extended Project Qualification, alongside my AS levels. A survey of egg-laying was used to test the hypothesis that female Small Coppers would prefer to oviposit on shorter Sorrels that were regenerating after grazing, in the hope that the project's findings would enable me to provide more of such Sorrels (thereby encouraging further breeding in my garden) and potentially inform habitat management for this species on a broader scale. It was found that relatively short plants, with relatively small leaves, growing in short grass were preferred, and with these variables being taken as indicators of grazing, I accepted my aforementioned hypothesis.

5. A History of the Large Blue Maculinea arion subspecies eutyphron (Fruhstorfer, 1915) in Somerset

Author: Peter Andrews.
Title: A History of the Large Blue Maculinea arion subspecies eutyphron (Fruhstorfer, 1915) in Somerset.
Date: 03 July 2015
Keywords: Large Blue, Maculinea arion, eutyphron, Somerset
Abstract: This article details historical records and specimens from Somerset of the extinct Large Blue Maculinea arion subspecies eutyphron (Fruhstorfer, 1915). There is also an account of I.R.P. Heslop's mid 20th century discoveries of M. arion in Somerset at previously unrecorded localities.

6. Butterfly Anatomy

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: Butterfly Anatomy.
Date: 02 July 2015
Keywords: anatomy

7. The Butterfly Collection of the Bree Family

Author: Michael Mead-Briggs.
Title: The Butterfly Collection of the Bree Family.
Date: 27 April 2015
Keywords: Bree, collection
Abstract: This article describes the rediscovery of a small but historically-interesting collection of butterflies assembled by members of the Bree family, from Allesley in Warwickshire. Both the Rev. William Thomas Bree and his son, the Rev. William Bree, are cited in numerous 19th century books as being knowledgeable observers of butterflies.

8. A History of the British Large Copper Lycaena dispar dispar and the Scarce Copper Lycaena virgaureae in Somerset

Author: Peter Andrews.
Title: A History of the British Large Copper Lycaena dispar dispar and the Scarce Copper Lycaena virgaureae in Somerset.
Date: 03 April 2015
Keywords: Large Copper, Lycaena dispar, Scarce Copper, Lycaena virgaureae, Somerset
Abstract: It has been over twenty years since the late Roger Sutton published information regarding the specimens of the British Large Copper Lycaena dispar dispar and the Scarce Copper Lycaena virgaureae in the Taunton Museum collections. This paper reevaluates these historic specimens, which are now held at the Somerset Heritage Centre in Taunton. Further information is also provided on the Somerset collectors that are thought to have encountered both of those Lycaena species on the Somerset Levels. The paper also mentions the further discovery of early specimens of Large and Scarce Coppers that may have originated in Somerset.

9. The Demise of the Mazarine Blue Cyaniris semiargus in Great Britain

Author: Andrew E. Cooper.
Title: The Demise of the Mazarine Blue Cyaniris semiargus in Great Britain.
Date: 06 March 2015
Keywords: Mazarine Blue, Cyaniris semiargus, Polyommatus semiargus, Extinction
Abstract: This article explores various causes for the extinction of the Mazarine Blue (Cyaniris semiargus) in Great Britain. It differs from past articles by elaborating upon changes in distribution and flight period (illustrated appropriately) in order to provide a clearer understanding into the possible reasons behind, and pace of, the butterfly's demise.

10. An observation of reduced parasitism in the Large White Pieris brassicae suggests a compelling reason to invest in additional broods

Author: Nick Bowles.
Title: An observation of reduced parasitism in the Large White Pieris brassicae suggests a compelling reason to invest in additional broods.
Date: 23 February 2015
Keywords: Large White, Pieris brassicae
Abstract: It has been speculated that climate change may reduce butterfly numbers as a result of asynchrony of butterfly species with their essential environmental resources. Additionally climate change may induce them to attempt to breed when conditions are initially conducive to adult ovipositing but ultimately sub-critical for full larval development. Both of these phenomena would be detrimental to the long term survival of the species and raise questions about the evolutionary value of responding to climate change in the way that has been documented by various authors, such as attempting to breed both earlier and later in the year. An observation of an 'extra brood', resulting in larvae of Large White Pieris brassicae very late in the year, suggests that, just as asynchrony between plants and butterflies may prove challenging to the butterflies' survival, asynchrony with the autecology of their parasitoids can assist survival. If further studies confirm this finding, it would explain the value of a genetic component giving a predilection towards attempting additional broods despite the potential pitfalls as essential environmental resources dwindle.

11. The Glanville Fritillary on Sand Point: a History and Appraisal

Author: Matthew Oates.
Title: The Glanville Fritillary on Sand Point: a History and Appraisal.
Date: 28 January 2015
Keywords: Glanville Fritillary, Melitaea cinxia
Abstract: This article examines the nature conservation lessons learnt from unofficial attempts made over a thirty year period to establish the Glanville Fritillary, Melitaea cinxia, at Sand Point, a small limestone promontory on the north Somerset coast. Two colonies were established there in different eras. The first persisted from 1983 to 2000, the second from 2006 to 2013. These releases were conducted by persons unknown, who chose not to liaise with the National Trust, which owns the land, or with Butterfly Conservation or Natural England and its forerunners. Consequently, the details of these establishment attempts are not known. The two populations were, though, crudely monitored by the National Trust and Butterfly Conservation Somerset Branch, and details of habitat conditions, food plant availability and management events were recorded. Some conclusions can be derived, which may assist our understanding of the ecological requirements of this rare butterfly elsewhere, perhaps especially with regard to climate change. The ethics of clandestine butterfly introduction attempts are not discussed here.

12. Eastern Region Purple Emperor Apatura iris report for 2014

Author: Liz Goodyear and Andrew Middleton.
Title: Eastern Region Purple Emperor Apatura iris report for 2014.
Date: 19 January 2015
Keywords: Purple Emperor, Apatura iris
Abstract: This report updates our previous reports, The Hertfordshire Purple Emperor (Goodyear and Middleton, 2003), the Purple Emperor Project Progress Report for 2003 (Goodyear and Middleton, 2004) and the Purple Emperor Project Progress Report for 2004 and 2005 (Goodyear and Middleton, 2006) all relating to the Eastern Region. It details additional historic records, and more recent records from our surveys and from other sources. After locating a number of Apatura iris colonies across Hertfordshire and Middlesex between 2000 and 2011, the authors found suitable habitat and a number of colonies in Essex in 2011-12, and in 2013-14 they found several locations for A. iris in Suffolk and Cambridgeshire. This was augmented by: Laurence Drummond's successful survey work across central-west Essex in 2014; a number of widespread sightings in the excellent A. iris year of 2013; further recent sightings from Essex, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire, all partly through increased observer effort, and Norfolk; other casual sightings. The report also discusses habitat quality, our survey technique, low-level landscape populations of A. iris, and the potential for A. iris to be present in Norfolk.

13. New Perspectives on the Mazarine Blue (Cyaniris semiargus) in the British Isles

Author: Peter Andrews.
Title: New Perspectives on the Mazarine Blue (Cyaniris semiargus) in the British Isles.
Date: 19 January 2015
Keywords: Mazarine Blue, Cyaniris semiargus
Abstract: This article provides a brief historical account of the Mazarine Blue (Cyaniris semiargus) in the British Isles and, in doing so, makes observations that have either not been previously documented or have not been appropriately emphasised, with regard to the habitat, distribution, flight times and extinction of this species.

14. Entomological Collections - Their Historic Importance and Relevance in the 21st Century

Author: Mark Colvin.
Title: Entomological Collections - Their Historic Importance and Relevance in the 21st Century.
Date: 28 December 2014
Keywords: entomological collection, insect collecting, voucher specimen, museum, natural history museum, natural history collection
Abstract: This article provides information on the relevance of entomological collections and collecting. It also reviews recent literature and provides the reader with a perspective on the reasoning behind the responsible collecting of specimens and the formation of a collection, and provides examples of the use of such specimens.

15. An Introduction to Captive Rearing

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: An Introduction to Captive Rearing.
Date: 27 November 2014
Keywords: captive rearing
Abstract: This article provides a personal view of captive rearing butterflies and moths. Its main objective is to enlighten readers in all aspects of captive rearing so that they develop an informed opinion and are also better-equipped should they attempt captive rearing themselves and thereby avoid the many potential pitfalls.

16. The Irish Mountain Ringlet

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: The Irish Mountain Ringlet.
Date: 24 November 2014
Keywords: Mountain Ringlet, Erebia epiphron, Ireland
Abstract: The presence of the Mountain Ringlet (Erebia epiphron) in Ireland has been a topic of much interest to Lepidopterists for decades, partly because of the small number of specimens that are reputedly Irish. This article examines available literature to date and includes images of all four surviving specimens that can lay claim to Irish provenance. [This is an update to the article written in February 2014].

17. Long-tailed Blue in Sussex - A Brief History

Author: Mark Colvin.
Title: Long-tailed Blue in Sussex - A Brief History.
Date: 01 October 2014
Keywords: Long-tailed Blue, Lampides boeticus
Abstract: 2013 was an exciting year for many migrant species, particularly in the southern counties, and the Long-tailed Blue (Lampides boeticus) once again appeared in the UK. This short account details the historic records and start of what was to become a very memorable butterfly season in the southern counties.

18. Speckled Wood (Early Stages)

Author: Vince Massimo.
Title: Speckled Wood (Early Stages).
Date: 01 October 2014
Keywords: Speckled Wood, Pararge aegeria
Abstract: This article provides an analysis of the development of the Speckled Wood, from egg to adult, with detailed observations of each stage noted during this development.

19. A Tale of Six Grayling

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: A Tale of Six Grayling.
Date: 01 October 2014
Keywords: Grayling, Hipparchia semele, scota, atlantica, thyone, hibernica, clarensis
Abstract: This article provides a comparison of the appearance of each Grayling subspecies against its formal definition and also, to a degree, against other subspecies. Findings are based on field observations over a three year period, as the author attempted to track down all of the subspecies and forms of the butterflies of the British Isles.

20. Observing Butterfly Early Stages in the Wild

Author: Vince Massimo.
Title: Observing Butterfly Early Stages in the Wild.
Date: 01 October 2014
Keywords: early stages

21. Large White (Early Stages)

Author: Vince Massimo.
Title: Large White (Early Stages).
Date: 01 October 2014
Keywords: Large White, Pieris brassiere

22. Reading the Map

Author: Neil Hulme.
Title: Reading the Map.
Date: 06 September 2014
Keywords: Map, Araschnia levana

23. Green-veined White (Early Stages)

Author: Vince Massimo.
Title: Green-veined White (Early Stages).
Date: 23 April 2014
Keywords: Green-veined White, Pieris napi

24. Rearing the Long-tailed Blue - Personal Observations

Author: Mark Colvin.
Title: Rearing the Long-tailed Blue - Personal Observations.
Date: 11 April 2014
Keywords: Long-tailed Blue, Lampides boeticus
Abstract: Although the Long-tailed Blue (Lampides boeticus) is one of the rarest migrants to the British Isles, it is probably the most-widely distributed Lycaenid in the world. In 2013 they occurred in unprecedented numbers in Sussex. This paper conveys the rearing experiences and thoughts of the author, and makes comparisons with the observations of the late F.W. Frohawk.

25. Brimstone (Early Stages)

Author: Vince Massimo.
Title: Brimstone (Early Stages).
Date: 01 February 2014
Keywords: Brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni

26. Small White (Early Stages)

Author: Vince Massimo.
Title: Small White (Early Stages).
Date: 01 February 2014
Keywords: Small White, Pieris rapae

27. Peacock (Early Stages)

Author: Vince Massimo.
Title: Peacock (Early Stages).
Date: 01 February 2014
Keywords: Peacock, Inachis io, Aglais io

28. Common Blue (Early Stages)

Author: Vince Massimo.
Title: Common Blue (Early Stages).
Date: 01 February 2014
Keywords: Common Blue, Polyommatus icarus

29. Red Admiral (Early Stages)

Author: Vince Massimo.
Title: Red Admiral (Early Stages).
Date: 01 February 2014
Keywords: Red Admiral, Vanessa atalanta

30. Small Tortoiseshell (Early Stages)

Author: Vince Massimo.
Title: Small Tortoiseshell (Early Stages).
Date: 01 February 2014
Keywords: Small Tortoiseshell, Aglais urticae

31. Orange-tip (Early Stages)

Author: Vince Massimo.
Title: Orange-tip (Early Stages).
Date: 01 February 2014
Keywords: Orange-tip, Anthocharis cardamines

32. Comma (Early Stages)

Author: Vince Massimo.
Title: Comma (Early Stages).
Date: 01 February 2014
Keywords: Comma, Polygonia c-album

33. Brown Hairstreak (Early Stages)

Author: Vince Massimo.
Title: Brown Hairstreak (Early Stages).
Date: 01 February 2014
Keywords: Brown Hairstreak, Thecla betulae

34. The Dalean Legacy - James Charles Dale (13th December 1791 to 6th February 1872)

Author: Mark Colvin.
Title: The Dalean Legacy - James Charles Dale (13th December 1791 to 6th February 1872).
Date: 28 December 2013
Keywords: Dale
Abstract: James Charles Dale was born at Iwerne Minster, near Blandford, Dorset, on the 13th December 1791. He was undoubtedly one of the most influential entomologists of his time and his collections, spanning numerous insect orders, are probably the single most important and comprehensive to have ever been compiled in the British Isles. His collections, daily journals, correspondence and detailed books of records, which are housed at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History (OUMNH), form one of the most important historical legacies left by any British entomologist. This article provides an insight into the man, his work and a bygone era.

35. An Interview with Kate Santry, Head of Archives and Library, Oxford University Museum of Natural History

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: An Interview with Kate Santry, Head of Archives and Library, Oxford University Museum of Natural History.
Date: 13 December 2013
Keywords: Kate Santry, OUMNH

36. Extinction and Hope ...

Author: Mark Colvin.
Title: Extinction and Hope ....
Date: 03 February 2013
Keywords: Large Copper, Lycaena dispar
Abstract: This article, concentrating on the Large Copper (Lycaena dispar), reflects on the decline and extinction of the British butterfly fauna. In contemplating these losses, the article suggests that we must learn from our mistakes and successes in order to conserve.

37. All Eyes on you! Butterflies of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa

Author: Herbert Otto.
Title: All Eyes on you! Butterflies of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa.
Date: August 2012
Keywords: Kruger

38. An Interview with Geoff Martin - Lepidoptera Collections Manager, British Museum of Natural History

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: An Interview with Geoff Martin - Lepidoptera Collections Manager, British Museum of Natural History.
Date: 01 October 2010
Keywords: Geoff Martin, British Museum of Natural History

39. Variation in British Butterflies

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: Variation in British Butterflies.
Date: October 2010
Keywords: variation

40. A Brief History of British Butterflies

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: A Brief History of British Butterflies.
Date: August 2010
Keywords: history

41. An Interview with Richard Lewington

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: An Interview with Richard Lewington.
Date: 24 March 2010
Keywords: Richard Lewington

42. Thoughts on Butterfly Photography

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: Thoughts on Butterfly Photography.
Date: 04 March 2010
Keywords: photography

43. An Interview with David Simcox - Senior Scientific Officer in Biodiversity, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH)

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: An Interview with David Simcox - Senior Scientific Officer in Biodiversity, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH).
Date: 12 June 2008
Keywords: David Simcox

44. Natural History Photography - My Way

Author: Maurice Pugh.
Title: Natural History Photography - My Way.
Date: 01 January 2007
Keywords: photography

45. Chasing Butterfly Books

Author: David Dunbar.
Title: Chasing Butterfly Books.
Date: 13 October 2006
Keywords: David Dunbar

46. An Interview with Dr. Martin Warren, Chief Executive of Butterfly Conservation

Author: Peter Eeles.
Title: An Interview with Dr. Martin Warren, Chief Executive of Butterfly Conservation.
Date: 06 October 2006
Keywords: Martin Warren, Butterfly Conservation